Vietnams mineral resources, apart from offshore oil and gas, include phosphate, coal, bauxite, base and precious metals, and a variety of industrial minerals. More than 5,000 mineral occurrences have been identified. Five broadly-defined metallogenic epochs have been recognised and, in general, the younger the setting the more abundant the deposits. Only a few are hosted by Precambrian rocks, principally iron, gold and graphite. The early to mid-Palaeozoic contains small deposits of iron ore, lead-zinc and large deposits of potash. Larger deposits of iron ore, ilmenite, gold, nickel-copper and bauxite were formed during the early Carboniferous/late Triassic.
Mineral rights in Vietnam are based on a licence system, rather than claimstaking. The principal mineral activity at present is coal mining in the north of the country where there is a total resource of anthracite in excess of 20,000 Mt, including proven reserves of 3,600 Mt.
Ref: Mining Journal, 2004
Antimony Gold Corporation NL, Asian Mineral Resources Limited, Ha Tu Coal Company, Vietnam Mineral Corporation, Vietnam National Coal Corporation
Bong Mieu Mine, Foundry Co. 1, Luc Yen Mine, Mai Lam Foundry Factory, Mandarin Foundry Co. Ltd, Phuoc Son, Saigon Foundry Accurate Co. Ltd, Tan Long Foundry Co.