General Information
ISO Code: TM
Dialing Code: +993
Continent: Asia

The republic of Turkmenistan lies in Central Asia and is bordered on the north by Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan, on the east by Uzbekistan and Afghanistan, on the south by Afghanistan and Iran, and on the west by the Caspian Sea. The capital city is Ashgabat. Other major cities include Turkmenabad (formerly Chardzhou), Dashkhouvuz and Turkmenbshi (formerly Krasnovodsk).

The official language is Turkmen. The local currency is the Turkmen manat (TMM) broken into 100 tenesi.

Turkmenistan is an important energy producer because it contains over 100 trillion cubic feet of proven natural gas reserves and also borders the Caspian Sea, which contains major oil and natural gas reserves. In 1999, oil production was 119,000 barrels per day (bbl/d).

Turkmenistan is a producer of important industrial minerals, including gypsum, iodine, bromine, sulfur, and salt.

Agriculture is the predominant industry in the country and cotton is the primary crop. The production levels have however halved since the country became independent after the Soviet Union broke up. The government has also tried to shift the emphasis away from cotton and attempts have been made to diversify crop growth.

The international time zone for Turkmenistan is GMT +5. The dialing code is + 993. There is an international airport at Ashgabat. Visa’s are required by all except holders of valid passports of CIS countries. Visitors are usually asked to produce a letter of invitation to enter the country.

The state of health, the current immunisation status, location and the local disease situation lead to the risk of contraction of Hepatitis A & E, diphtheria, tuberculosis and undulant fever.

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